Background: For many emergency providers, POCUS has become a critical modality in the resuscitation of patients with cardiac arrest. The authors of this paper (The REASON Trial) state that <8% of all OHCA’s survive to hospital discharge; a dismal number. We already know that shockable rhythms, early defibrillation, early bystander CPR, and ROSC in the field are all associated with increased survival. What we don’t have is large scale evidence that the use of POCUS improves survival with good neurologic outcomes. Read more →
Author Archive for: srrezaie
Background : For anyone who has taken care of a patient with renal colic, the agony they experience is indelible. I have had several female patients even tell me that the pain is worse than child birth. Treatment of renal colic comes down to two key components: treatment of pain and expediting passage of the stone. Many medications have been tested for the former, and we have discussed the latter on our blog before (HERE and HERE). We had a recent resident journal club discussing a trial comparing IV lidocaine (1.5mg/kg) vs IV morphine (0.1mg/kg) for treatment of pain. Read more →
Background: The care of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is currently undergoing a paradigm shift in the US with an increasingly large percentage of patients being discharged home from the Emergency Department (ED). It wasn’t too long ago that all patients diagnosed with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) would be admitted for anticoagulation. Some of the reasons for this were lack of literature to support outpatient therapy in the US, inability to arrange outpatient follow up, and, of course, medicolegal concerns. Dr. Jeff Kline, one of the thought leaders in VTE, advocates for the outpatient treatment of “low-risk” patients using a modified Hestia criteria supplemented with additional criteria (POMPE-C) for patients with active cancer. This publication is the initial results of his rivaroxaban-based treatment protocol. Read more →
Background: Anyone who works in the Emergency Department has seen patients brought in by EMS or sent from the clinic with a chief complaint of “high blood sugar.” Now, we are not talking about patients with diabetic ketoacidosis, but just simple hyperglycemia. This is a common complaint with no real consensus on optimal blood glucose levels before safe discharge. Read more →
Submassive pulmonary embolism (PE) is responsible for approximately 20% of all PEs. Although the in-hospital mortality has been reported as about 5%, there is significant morbidity associated with this diagnosis such as chronic pulmonary hypertension, impaired quality of life, persistent right ventricular disfunction, and recurrent venous thromboembolism. The literature suggests that systemic thrombolytics can improve morbidity and maybe mortality, but this comes at the risk of increased major bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage (2 – 3%) when compared to anticoagulation alone. Read more →
Background: The most recent surviving sepsis campaign recommends the use of hydrocortisone in patients with refractory septic shock (i.e. vasopressor dependent). However, the use of hydrocortisone in severe sepsis without shock still remains a very controversial topic. Recommendations for hydrocortisone are mostly based on 2 randomized clinical trials (i.e. Annane et al  and CORTICUS ), but subsequent meta-analyses had more mixed results. Shock reversal was consistently improved irrespective of disease severity; however, mortality outcomes were not as consistent. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that early hydrocortisone administration could prevent shock by attenuating patient’s inflammatory response. Read more →
Background: Syncope is a very frustrating chief complaint for many in the medical field. There is no gold standard test and no validated decision instrument. It represents about 3 – 5% of ED visits, 1 – 6% of hospital admissions, and in patients over the age of 65 years it is the 6th most common cause of hospitalization . Additionally, both ED and inpatient work ups are notoriously low yield for finding significant pathology. Pulmonary embolism is one of the myriad of diagnoses included in the differential diagnosis of syncope, but there is little information looking at its prevalence amongst hospitalized patients. Fast forward to Oct. 20th, 2016 and there is now some evidence just published in the NEJM: The PESIT Trial. Read more →
This years ACEP 2016 conference took place in Las Vegas, NV from Oct 16th – 19th. There was greater than 350 courses, labs, and workshops given throughout the week. It was impossible to make all of these great lectures, but I was able to take away some very important clinical pearls that I wanted to share with our readers. Read more →
For those of us who have been lucky enough to attend one of the first four SMACC conferences, I think we would agree that this is one of the highest quality, academic meetings in the world. One of the main reasons for this is the enormous and inspiring energy of the critical care community itself. A community that crosses traditional hierarchies, professional barriers and international borders. This is a community dedicated to innovation, teaching and learning. A community based around the pursuit of excellence in patient care, and a passion for sharing this as widely as possible. Well, the Social Media and Critical Care Conference (SMACC) is back with its 5th iteration of the conference in Berlin, June 26th – 29th, 2017.
This blog post is the third part of a series of 3, on a recent lecture I was asked to give on Critical Care Updates: Resuscitation Sequence Intubation. This talk was mostly derived from a podcast by Scott Weingart (Twitter: @EMCrit) where he talked about the physiologic killers during preintubation and perintubation. In this podcast, Scott mentions the HOp killers: Hypotension, Hypoxemia, and Metabolic Acidosis (pH) as the physiologic causes of pre-intubation/peri-intubation morbidity and mortality. Taking care of these critically ill patients that require intubation can be a high stress situation, with little room for error. In part three of this series we will discuss some useful strategies at the bedside to help us not worsen pre-intubation/peri-intubation metabolic acidosis.
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