is the blogs audio version. The podcast typically starts by setting a clinical stage with a pertinent clinical question, followed by a discussion of the paper with pertinent results, strengths, limitations, and further discussion. Finally, we end every podcast with clinical take home points from the papers being reviewed. If there are papers you think we should evaluate, email them to

May 15, 2019

Take Home Points on Epiglottitis

  • Epiglottitis has demonstrated a resurgence in the adult population. It is no longer a pediatric only disease.
  • The classic presentation of epiglottitis (3Ds of drooling, dysphagia and distress) is uncommon
  • Epiglottitis should be high on your differential for the bounce-back patient who continues to complain of worsening sore throat
  • Definitive diagnosis is made by flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy
  • Be ready for a difficult airway

May 13, 2019

Background: Post-ROSC care is a multifaceted endeavor that includes targeted temperature management (TTM), vital-organ support, and treatment of the underlying cause of arrest. One of the most common causes of cardiac arrest is acute coronary syndrome.  Current European and American guidelines recommend immediate coronary angiography with PCI in patients who present with cardiac arrest due to STEMI. However, in patients with cardiac arrest who do not have STEMI, the role of immediate coronary angiography is still up for debate.  The ACC/AHA published a statement in July of 2015 (Covered on REBEL EM) that proposed an algorithm to stratify cardiac arrest patients who are comatose on presentation for emergent coronary angiography and possible PCI. 

May 9, 2019

Background Information: The sequential administration of a sedative and neuromuscular blocking agent (NMBA) to facilitate the passage of an endotracheal tube is a common method of intubating in both the emergency department (ED) and intensive care unit (ICU). In fact, 85% of ED intubation and 75% of ICU intubations are performed using RSI. 1 It has been shown that the NMBA not only provides muscle relaxation to improve laryngeal view but has also reduced intubation associated complications, ultimately improving the likelihood of intubation success.2-4 While the early use of a sedative leads to hypoventilation and apnea, the patient has an increased risk of hypoxemia and delaying optimal intubation conditions.1 Use of an NMBA was associated with a lower prevalence of hypoxemia, however the order of its administration before the sedative remains controversial for fear of patient awareness and its use has been limited to the operating room (OR) setting. 1,2 The authors of this study sought to identify whether the order of RSI drugs was associated with increased apnea time during intubation. They defined this interval as the time elapsed from administration of the first RSI drug to the end of a successful first intubation attempt.

May 6, 2019

Background: Management and workup of fever in the neonate has been a long-standing challenge. This unique age group is particularly susceptible to serious bacterial infections (SBI’s) despite their clinical “well” appearance. Newborns, specifically those < 60 days of age are considered high risk for SBI’s (urinary tract infections, bacteremia, bacterial meningitis) primarily due to an underdeveloped immune system. As fragile hosts, simple bacterial infections are easily communicated via hematogenous spread, from one system to another. Once bacteremic, spread of infection through their permeable blood-brain barriers is relatively easy. Through a cascade of cellular events, bacteria are able to easily penetrate the CNS, leading to overwhelming meningitis &/or death.[1] Confounding their vulnerability, is the lack of immunizations in the first month of life. If you recall, at birth, newborns are given just their first hepatitis B vaccine. The remainder of baseline immunizations (Pneumococcal, Haemophilus influenzae type b [Hib], Rotavirus, Diphtheria, tetanus & acellular Pertussis [DTap], and Polio) are traditionally not given until 6 weeks - 2 months of age.[2] Thus infants in the < 60 day age range are dependent on their mothers’ antibodies for protection. Lastly as any clinician who has taken care of a sick newborn can attest, babies at this age rarely manifest an “ill-appearance” until they are critically ill, making their exam in the early stages of bacteremia falsely reassuring. Collectively this makes the workup of fever (38 ℃/100.4 ℉) in this age group particularly challenging.

May 1, 2019

Take Home Points on Blunt Cardiac Injury

  • No single test can be used to exclude BCI. However a thorough physical exam combined with a 12-lead EKG, troponin measurement, and echocardiography can be used to characterize BCI and direct care
  • Obtain a 12-lead EKG in all thoracic trauma patients 
  • A chest x-ray may help to identify associated injuries. However, isolated musculoskeletal injuries such as sternal fractures do not correlate with a risk of BCI
  • Bedside TTE can quickly evaluate for life-threats such as cardiac tamponade; A TEE is both sensitive and specific across the spectrum of BCI pathology and is part of a comprehensive evaluation
  • BCI can be excluded in a patient without EKG abnormalities and a negative troponin I