REBEL EM has primarily been a clinical blog focusing on critical appraisal of research, but now we are proud to introduce


, an initiative to improve discussion of core content in emergency medicine/critical care. Free Open Access Medical Education (FOAMed) has long been dedicated to discussing current literature to shorten knowledge translation. However, if all you use is FOAMed, then you will have “swiss cheese knowledge”, due to the lack of having foundational knowledge. The entire breadth of emergency medicine is not currently covered by FOAMed with a disproportionate representation of critical care topics (i.e. ECG, Ultrasound, Resuscitation, Procedures). REBEL Core will continue to discuss the foundational knowledge necessary in all aspects of emergency care.
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  • REBEL Core
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  • REBEL Core

Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection (SCAD)

Background: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD), once thought of as a rare “zebra” diagnosis that was universally fatal, is now being increasingly recognized as a cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), particularly in women due to increased vigilance, greater utilization …

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REBEL Core Cast 42.0 – Orbital Compartment Syndrome

Take Home Points Trauma resulting in a retrobulbar hemorrhage can lead to orbital compartment syndrome which is a vision threatening injury Diagnosis is made clinically based on the presence of an afferent pupillary defect, vision loss and an intraocular pressure …

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Head, Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat

REBEL Core Cast 41.0 – Acute Chest Syndrome

Take Home Points 100k people in US have sickle cell, the majority will at some point develop acute chest syndrome (ACS) The mortality rate per episode is 3-9%, similar to those of STEMI ACS is a syndrome – CXR infiltrate …

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CardiovascularHematology and Oncology

REBEL Core Cast 40.0 – Wernicke Encephalopathy

Take Home Points Wernicke encephalopathy is characterized by ataxia, altered mental status and ophthalmoplegia but patients are unlikely to have all these components Suspect Wernicke encephalopathy in any patient that is at risk of malnutrition or malabsorption and has any …

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Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE)

Definition: Medial or posterior slippage of the femoral capital epiphysis relative to the metaphysis Epidemiology: Classic patient group: overweight adolescent boys Over 80% of SCFE involves children with a BMI > 95th percentile (Manoff 2005). Average age of onset: 12 …

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REBEL Core Cast 39.0 – Upper GI Bleed

Take Home Points Focus on resuscitating well by focusing on the basics Recognize Massive GIB (MGIB) with a thorough exam of the patient and vital signs (Shock index >0.7 is ABNORMAL and signals impending shock) Obtain large bore PIV access …

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Abdominal and Gastroinstestinal

REBEL Core Cast 38.0 – Productivity

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REBEL Core Cast 37.0 – Spinal Epidural Abscess

Take Home Points Spinal Epidural Abscess may present insidiously and patients often lack the classic triad of fever, back pain and neurologic symptoms Empiric Antibiotics should cover Staphylococcus (including MRSA) and Gram negative Bacilli All patients with clinical suspicion require …

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Infectious DiseaseNeurologyOrthopedics

REBEL Core Cast 36.0 – Seizures

Take Home Points When approaching the patient with uspected seizure, focus on questions that matter in determining if the event was a seizure or not Extensive lab work after a first time seizure is not necessary in patients who are …

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Spinal Epidural Abscess (SEA)

Definition: Suppurative infection enclosed within the epidural space Epidemiology Incidence: 2-3 cases per 10,000 hospitalized patients (Sendi 2008). Rate is increasing given the rise in number of spinal procedures and anesthesia techniques Mortality is low at 5%, however, if untreated …

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Infectious DiseaseNeurology