September 17, 2020

Background: Baloxavir (trade name Xofluza) was approved for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated influenza in patients > 12 years of age in October 2018. However, high-quality data has been underwhelming at best for its efficacy in treatment. Back in November of 2018, REBEL EM concluded:

Clinical Take Home Point: Consistent with every other study on anti-viral medications for influenza, baloxavir appears to decrease duration of symptoms, especially in patients treated within 24 hours of symptoms, BUT a massive exclusion list, cost of the medication, increased resistance after initiation, results only applicable to H3N2 (88% of patients with flu), no comparison to standard care (i.e. symptom based therapy), pharma sponsored study, and no patient oriented outcomes, it is hard to make an argument for the use of baloxivir in patients with confirmed influenza. This trial should be a reminder as to why an industry funded trial, without full release of data, and cherry picked endpoints should not be used to change practice.

Continued research on effective anti-influenza drugs is critically important particularly with the potential for a “double pandemic” in the coming months. While treatment results are modest at best, baloxavir has potential as a prophylactic medication as well.

September 16, 2020

Take Home Points

  • Wernicke encephalopathy is characterized by ataxia, altered mental status and ophthalmoplegia but patients are unlikely to have all these components
  • Suspect Wernicke encephalopathy in any patient that is at risk of malnutrition or malabsorption and has any one of the classic symptoms
  • Prophylactic administration of thiamine 100 mg IV/IM to at risk patients can prevent development of the disease
  • Once Wernicke encephalopathy has developed, it must be treated with high-dose, IV thiamine

September 14, 2020

Background: Though it’s been stated numerous times on this blog, it bears repeating: the pillars of sepsis care remain early identification of sepsis, early appropriate empiric antibiotics, source control, and supportive care. The focus should be on getting the basics right but, it is important to evaluate whether other adjunctive therapies can help decrease mortality in a common and frequently fatal condition. Ascorbic acid and thiamine deficiency have been described in patients with sepsis and are thought to be due to reduced intake and increased metabolic demands.  Corticosteroids have had mixed results but seem to improve shock reversal in patients with septic shock based on best available evidence (Link is HERE). There have been a slew of RCTs evaluating this metabolic cocktail (vitamin C, thiamine, & corticosteroids) in recent months. Though biologically plausible, this treatment approach has not been shown to improve patient-oriented outcomes.

September 10, 2020

Background: There are three randomized clinical trials now published on remdesivir in the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia (RCT 1, RCT 2, & RCT 3). The 1st trial, performed in China, was terminated early due the lack of patients to enroll and, as a result, did not give strong recommendations.  The 2nd trial (ACTT-1) showed a statistically significant 4-day reduction in time to recovery. However, it was also terminated early due to an interim analysis, which meant we do not have outcomes on 30% of patients enrolled.  Finally, the 3rd RCT compared a 5-day to a 10-day course of remdesivir and showed no difference in outcomes with more acute kidney injury in the 10-day course. All of these trials have significant issues leaving clinicians unsure of the efficacy of the drug, when to administer it, how long to give it for and, in which patient group it should be given. We now have our 4th RCT of remdesivir evaluating the efficacy and adverse events of remdesivir administered for 5- or 10-days vs standard care in hospitalized patients with moderate COVID-19.

September 7, 2020

Definition: Medial or posterior slippage of the femoral capital epiphysis relative to the metaphysis


  • Classic patient group: overweight adolescent boys
    • Over 80% of SCFE involves children with a BMI > 95th percentile (Manoff 2005).
    • Average age of onset: 12 years old
  • Bilateral SCFE is fairly common
    • 23% will have contralateral disease at the time of initial presentation, despite only complaining of unilateral pain (Hagglund 1988, Loder 1993).
    • Up to 60% of patients will go on to develop bilateral SCFE in their lifetime
    • 88% of subsequent slips occur within 18 months of diagnosing the first slip
  • Influenced by bone maturation, strength, and weight mismatch.
  • SCFE has also been associated with endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, pan-hypopituitarism, but this is not as common.