Author: Mark Ramzy

External Validation of Pittsburgh Cardiac Arrest Category (PCAC) Illness Severity Score

Background Information: Multiple illness severity scores have been developed for use after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). Unfortunately, these rely on information that is not immediately available to providers in the early hours following return of …

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EPIC Trial: Electrode Positioning in Cardioverting Atrial Fibrillation

Background Information: Electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation is regularly performed by emergency physicians, intensivists, and cardiologists. Although many approaches to performing this procedure exist, the most common electrode placement is the anterior-lateral compared to the anterior-posterior positioning.1 The literature backing …

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CardiovascularProcedures and SkillsResuscitation

Effect of Intra-Arrest Transport and eCPR on Neurologic Outcomes in Refractory OHCA

Background Information: Refractory out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is defined as prolonged cardiac arrest and cardiac arrest without return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). In addition to an already morbid condition, the chances of these patients surviving drops below 5% …

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Meta-Analysis on Topical TXA for Epistaxis

Background Information: Epistaxis management in the emergency department has historically included topical vasoconstrictors, local anesthetics such as oxymetazoline and phenylephrine and topical fibrinolytic agents such as Tranexamic Acid (TXA). When these topical agents fail, packing, chemical cauterization or surgical ligation …

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Head, Eye, Ear, Nose, and ThroatProcedures and SkillsResuscitation

SCOPE-DKA: Normal Saline vs Plasmalyte in Severe DKA

Background Information:  Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication of diabetes that we frequently encounter in both the emergency department (ED) and intensive care unit (ICU). While intravenous fluid replacement remains one of several cornerstones of therapies, much debate exists …

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Endocrine, Metabolic, Fluid, and ElectrolytesResuscitation