October 1, 2020

Background Information: Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome (CHS) is characterized by the chronic use of cannabis paired with nausea, recurrent vomiting episodes and diffuse abdominal pain.1 The pathophysiology of CHS remains unclear and large systematic reviews of the literature have recommended up to 9 differing mechanisms as to why it occurs.2 The duration of cannabis use in CHS also widely varies with the majority of patients reporting daily use and beginning use early in life.2 In addition to the history of frequent cannabis use, patients’ self-reported relief of symptoms following hot showers or baths helps distinguish CHS from other cyclic vomiting syndromes. Treatment typically involves cessation of cannabis use however the authors of this randomized controlled pilot study wished to investigate the use of topical capsaicin cream when compared to placebo.

August 24, 2020

Background Information:

It is well documented throughout the literature that critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with acute kidney injury have a higher morbidity and mortality.1–4 Acute kidney injury may be complicated by acidosis, hyperkalemia and other major metabolic disorders and thus the initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) is generally considered beneficial in these patients.5 In patients without these complications, the timing of when to initiate RRT remains unclear and is frequently debated. There are three trials to know before getting to this one: ELAIN, IDEAL and AKIKI. The ELAIN trial was the only one of the three to show reduced 90-day mortality with early vs delayed initiation of RRT and was the smallest in sample size.6 The IDEAL trial concluded that early planned initiation of dialysis in stage V chronic kidney disease was not associated with improvement in survival or clinical outcomes.7 Lastly, the AKIKI trial found no significant difference with regard to mortality between an early and delayed strategy of RRT and actually saw an appreciable number of patients avert the need for RRT in a delayed strategy.8 The authors of the following study sought to investigate whether an accelerated strategy for RRT would result in lower risk of death from any cause at 90 days when compared to a standard strategy of RRT initiation.

August 3, 2020

 Background Information:

The care and management of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is complex and follows an inciting injury to the lungs. This constellation of symptoms is characterized by hypoxemia, diffuse lung inflammation, decreased lung compliance and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema typically seen as bilateral opacities on radiographical imaging.1  Slow progress has been made in developing effective ARDS treatments, among them are low tidal volumes which have been shown to improve mortality.2 Over time the development of guidelines such as the ARDSnet protocol have also helped provide a stepwise framework to treatment. However, there are a subset of patients who continue to remain hypoxic and refractory hypoxemia accounts for 10-15% of deaths in ARDS patients.3   The therapies typically implemented to correct refractory hypoxia include proning, inhaled pulmonary vasodilators, extracorporeal membranous oxygenation (ECMO), paralysis, recruitment maneuvers, unconventional ventilator modes and more.4–8 The following post and included infographics focus on the following therapies: Proning, Paralytics and (lung) Protection. It is important to note that regardless of the therapy, specializing care on an individual basis with a risk-benefit analysis is required to give patients the best possible chance at survival.

July 13, 2020

Background Information:

Headache is a common chief complaint that emergency physicians encounter almost every day and sometimes multiple times in each shift. In fact, headache is the fifth leading cause of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED).1 Current first-line treatment consists of a dopamine antagonist such as prochlorperazine or metoclopramide which are given in addition to diphenhydramine to mitigate any potential adverse effects. A recent study has shown that IV haloperidol, another dopamine antagonist, was equivalent to IV metoclopramide in the successful treatment of headaches in the ED.2 Additionally, haloperidol has been shown to be an effective rescue medication in the treatment of refractory migraine-pain.3 Unfortunately, the cardiovascular effects and reported QTc prolongation associated with haloperidol has limited its use in the ED. The authors of the following study sought to determine the effectiveness of low-dose IV haloperidol in the ED treatment of acute benign headache among patients aged 13 to 55 years old

May 28, 2020

Background Information:

Physicians have and continue to heavily contribute to the current opioid epidemic in the United States and Canada.1 Although much of the focus has been opioid prescriptions given to patients in the emergency department,2,3 not much attention has been paid to critically ill patients who survive to hospital discharge. The long-term sequelae of these opioids is concerningly overlooked especially when physicians utilize these medications as part of an “analgesia first” approach to sedating critically ill patients for the purposes of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV).4 Previous observational studies in Canada found that approximately 85% of critically ill patients receiving IMV were exposed to opioids.1 Furthermore, the average daily opioid dosing for 2-7 days was 63 milligrams of morphine equivalent (MME), increasing to 106 MME per day for patients receiving IMV for greater than 7 days. The authors of this study performed a retrospective chart review of population-based data from Ontario Canada to investigate the frequency of new opioid initiation and persistent opioid use among critically ill patients who received mechanical ventilation. They compared this to patients who were hospitalized but not critically ill.