Author: Mark Ramzy

Meta-Analysis on Topical TXA for Epistaxis

Background Information: Epistaxis management in the emergency department has historically included topical vasoconstrictors, local anesthetics such as oxymetazoline and phenylephrine and topical fibrinolytic agents such as Tranexamic Acid (TXA). When these topical agents fail, packing, chemical cauterization or surgical ligation …

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Head, Eye, Ear, Nose, and ThroatProcedures and SkillsResuscitation

SCOPE-DKA: Normal Saline vs Plasmalyte in Severe DKA

Background Information:  Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication of diabetes that we frequently encounter in both the emergency department (ED) and intensive care unit (ICU). While intravenous fluid replacement remains one of several cornerstones of therapies, much debate exists …

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Endocrine, Metabolic, Fluid, and ElectrolytesResuscitation

DoReMi Trial: Milrinone vs Dobutamine for Treatment of Cardiogenic Shock

Background Information: The management of patients in cardiogenic shock is often multifactorial, consisting of mechanical circulatory support, vasopressors and inotropes. While the latter two are the foundation of therapy, the literature is scarce on whether milrinone or dobutamine will be more …

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TTM2: Hypothermia vs Normothermia for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Background Information: Hypothermia was first introduced in 2002 by two studies, Bernard et al and The Hypothermia After Cardiac Arrest (HACA) trial.1,2 The latter, although a small trial, showed improved neurologic outcomes at six months when patients were cooled to …

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External Validation of the Canadian Syncope Risk Score

Background Information: The Canadian Syncope Risk Score (CSRS) is one of several clinical decision tools used in the emergency department (ED) following a syncopal episode. (Figure 1) It was derived from one of the largest datasets currently available and its …

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