Author Archive for: Swami

Medical Expulsion Therapy in Ureteral Colic: An Update

06 Aug
August 6, 2015

Medical Expulsion Therapy 2Back in August 2014, we posted an in depth review on medical expulsion therapy (MET) with tamsulosin in patients with renal colic. The summary of that post was:

“Clearly, there is disagreement in the literature. None of the studies are ideal. We continue to lack a large, RDCT done on patients presenting to the Emergency Department with renal colic.

The best evidence we have DOES NOT show a significant benefit to the use of tamsulosin in renal colic.”

Since that post, two well done RDCTs were published so we thought a brief review of each of these articles and updated recommendations were warranted. Read more →

Critical Care Horizons – A FOAM Critical Care Journal

30 Jul
July 30, 2015

Critical Care HorizonsAs the world of Free Open Access Medical Education has expanded over the last 5 years, one area that has been a laggard is the traditional journal. Although some journals release a limited number of articles in an open access format (NEJM, Annals of EM, Academic EM, EM Australasia, etc.) we haven’t seen a true open-access journal that is free to publish and free to read. This changed on June 24th, 2015 when the first issue of Critical Care Horizons was released. Read more →

Journal Update – Beta Blocker vs. Calcium Channel Blocker for Rate Control in Atrial Fibrillation

09 Jul
July 9, 2015

Atrial FibrillationBackground: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a commonly encountered dysrhythmia in the Emergency Department (ED). Atrial flutter is less common but its management is very similar to that of AF. In patients with chronic AF or unknown time of onset and a rapid ventricular response (RVR), rate control and consideration and initiation of anticoagulation therapy are the standard ED approach. Both beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers are commonly used for rate control in the ED but it is unclear whether one of these agents is superior to the other as there is scant high-quality data on the topic (Demircan 2005). Read more →

Cardiogenic Shock

25 May
May 25, 2015

Cardiogenic ShockAuthor’s Note: This post is one of the first written for a new site sponsored by the NYU/Bellevue Emergency Department called Core EM. This is a FOAM site dedicated to core content Emergency Medicine featuring a blog, podcast and procedure video section. The Core EM Project launches on June 15th, 2015. Thanks to Salim and the REBEL EM editorial staff for posting this here. We’ll make sure to let you all know when Core EM is up and running at

Definition: Tissue hypoperfusion that is primarily attributable to damage to the heart.

Criteria: The cardiology literature focuses diagnostic criteria based on systolic blood pressure (SBP) (Gowda 2008)

  • SBP < 90 mm Hg
  • Decrease in MAP by 30 mm Hg

It is more important, however, to look for evidence of hypoperfusion. In the acute setting, this will typically manifest as a change in mental status (lethargy, decreased responsiveness, agitation, decreased cap refill, cool extremeties etc.). Read more →

Do Patients with Posterior Epistaxis Managed by Posterior Packs Require ICU Admission?

13 Apr
April 13, 2015

Epistaxis MythsThis post is part 2 of epistaxis dogma. In the first post, we discussed the (dis)utility of prophylactic antibiotics in patients with epistaxis who require nasal packing. Here, we will take on dogma #2:

Dogma #2: Patients with posterior packs for epistaxis should be admitted to the ICU for continuous monitoring due to the risk of life-threatening bradydysrhythmias.

Unfortunately, the literature here is even sparser than with prophylactic antibiotics. An extensive literature search (paging research librarian) turned up two articles that were repeatedly cited. Read more →

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