April 5, 2020

Hey there REBEL Cast listeners, Salim Rezaie here.  For me and I am sure many COVID-19 has been quite the whirlwind.  So much information, so little time to process all of it.  Meanwhile, many of us are on the frontlines having to take care of these patients.  Personally, I have never been so wrong, so many times about a single disease process.  What I say today, may be different tomorrow.  This podcast was recorded on April 3rd, 2020 so any information that comes out after this, might change the viewpoints that are expressed today.

April 2, 2020

Background: Peripheral intravenous (PIV) access is one of the most commonly performed invasive procedures in unwell patients.  Although, most patients can have PIVs placed by palpation, there is a subset of patients with difficult vascular access that will require ultrasound-guided peripheral IVs. We have covered this topic before with Jacob Avila (The Ultrasound Podcast, 5 Minute Sono) in REBEL Cast Ep 62. One thing we did not cover was catheter dwell rates.  Catheter dwell rate is an important endpoint as it takes time to perform the procedure, but more importantly for the patient, premature IV failure can include complications such as infiltration, phlebitis, ischemia, necrosis, as well as delays in receiving medications. Therefore, an important concept worth covering is the length of the catheter that is in the vein.

Midline catheters, which we have also covered on REBEL EM are catheters with lengths of 6 to 20cm and represent a potential solution.  These catheters have high success rates and longevity, but insertion requires institutional protocols and specialized training.  A nice go between is the peripheral ultralong catheter (ULC), which is 6.35cm. As with anything new in medicine, it is important to review the evidence to ensure we are performing best practices for our patients.

March 30, 2020

The American Heart Association (AHA) released a focused update in 2019, for advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) guidelines, to addend those published in 2017 and 2018 for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care.  These recommendations were based on evidence identified by the 2019 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations (CoSTR) from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR).  This ACLS Update addresses three main concerns:
  1. Advanced Airway management
  2. Vasopressors in cardiac arrest
  3. Extracorporeal CPR (ECPR) during cardiac arrest

March 25, 2020

Take-Home Points
  1. Before starting a neonatal resuscitation, take some deep breaths to calm yourself
  2. Call in your friends - get a second team to manage the mother, call OB, call the NICU - all hands on deck
  3. Anticipate the equipment you'll need, get it to the bedside and don't forget to turn the warmer on
  4. Assign roles so everyone knows what they're supposed to do
  5. Initiate transfer to a NICU as soon as possible

March 19, 2020

Background: Vasopressors are often used to improve hypotension and perfusion in an effort to decrease mortality of patients with septic shock. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) of >65mmHg has typically been used to guide vasopressor therapy in most patients and higher targets have been recommended for patients with chronic hypertension or coronary artery disease. Results from the Sepsis and Mean Arterial Pressure (SEPSISPAM) [2] and Optimal Vasopressor Titration (OVATION) [3] pilot trials suggested that increased exposure to vasopressors targeting higher MAPs in older patients (≥65mmHg) may be associated with increased risk of death. We now have the 65 trial [1] which is a randomized clinical trial testing the hypothesis that reducing vasopressor exposure through permissive hypotension (Targeting a MAP of 60 – 65mmHg) among patient ≥65 years of age with vasodilatory hypotension versus usual care in the ICU.
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