October 19, 2020

Background: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD), once thought of as a rare “zebra” diagnosis that was universally fatal, is now being increasingly recognized as a cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), particularly in women due to increased vigilance, greater utilization of coronary angiography and advanced imaging. Despite these advances, SCAD still remains one of the most enigmatic syndromes in cardiology. It carries a high misdiagnosis and mistreatment rate with lack of consensus on investigation or treatment. Here we review the salient features of SCAD to increase awareness of this disease entity and further our understanding of this unique disease process.

October 14, 2020

Take Home Points
  • Trauma resulting in a retrobulbar hemorrhage can lead to orbital compartment syndrome which is a vision threatening injury
  • Diagnosis is made clinically based on the presence of an afferent pupillary defect, vision loss and an intraocular pressure > 40 mm Hg
  • Treatment is with a lateral canthotomy - a simple but mentally daunting procedure

September 30, 2020

Take Home Points
  • 100k people in US have sickle cell, the majority will at some point develop acute chest syndrome (ACS)
  • The mortality rate per episode is 3-9%, similar to those of STEMI
  • ACS is a syndrome - CXR infiltrate + respiratory symptoms
  • Treat it aggressively and early (antibiotics, respiratory support)
  • If you’re considering exchange transfusion - get hematology onboard quickly

September 16, 2020

Take Home Points

  • Wernicke encephalopathy is characterized by ataxia, altered mental status and ophthalmoplegia but patients are unlikely to have all these components
  • Suspect Wernicke encephalopathy in any patient that is at risk of malnutrition or malabsorption and has any one of the classic symptoms
  • Prophylactic administration of thiamine 100 mg IV/IM to at risk patients can prevent development of the disease
  • Once Wernicke encephalopathy has developed, it must be treated with high-dose, IV thiamine

September 7, 2020

Definition: Medial or posterior slippage of the femoral capital epiphysis relative to the metaphysis

Epidemiology:

  • Classic patient group: overweight adolescent boys
    • Over 80% of SCFE involves children with a BMI > 95th percentile (Manoff 2005).
    • Average age of onset: 12 years old
  • Bilateral SCFE is fairly common
    • 23% will have contralateral disease at the time of initial presentation, despite only complaining of unilateral pain (Hagglund 1988, Loder 1993).
    • Up to 60% of patients will go on to develop bilateral SCFE in their lifetime
    • 88% of subsequent slips occur within 18 months of diagnosing the first slip
  • Influenced by bone maturation, strength, and weight mismatch.
  • SCFE has also been associated with endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, pan-hypopituitarism, but this is not as common.