May 31, 2018

Definition: Syndrome characterized by dysfunction of multiple lumbar and sacral nerve roots in the lumbar vertebral canal due to compression

Anatomy

  • The spinal cord terminates in the conus medullaris at the T12/L1 vertebral body in adults
  • Cauda equina
    • Collection of nerve roots from L1-S5
    • Compression from various causes results in lower motor neuron pathology

May 28, 2018

Background: Patients with penetrating neck trauma can present with a variety of injury patterns including hemorrhagic shock, airway obstruction and neurologic injury. Serious injuries may not be clinically obvious making diagnosis and prompt treatment challenging. Due to the large number of critical structures in the neck, a clear knowledge of the anatomy is necessary for proper evaluation and management.

Epidemiology (Evans 2018)

  • Represent 1% of all trauma admissions in the US and have a 5% mortality rate
  • 80% of morality secondary to cerebral infarction
  • ~ 20% of mortality secondary to uncontrolled hemorrhage

May 17, 2018

Definition: Salicylate toxicity is characterized by a constellation of symptoms caused by acute or chronic overdose of salicylate containing compounds. The most common salicylate is aspirin, but the group also includes topical forms of salicylates, methyl salicylate (Oil of Wintergreen), and bismuth subsalicylate (such as in Pepto-Bismol).

January 15, 2018

Definition: Blood loss > 500 ml after a delivery (or > 250 ml after an abortion). The management of post-abortion hemorrhage is similar to that of post-partum hemorrhage (PPH).

Causes

  • Uterine atony (~ 50% of cases)
  • Retained products of conception (POCs)
  • Cervical lacerations
  • Uterine perforation
  • Uterine Inversion
  • Abnormal placentation (accreta, increta, percreta)
  • Coagulopathy

Background:

  • Occurs in 1-2% of patients undergoing a first trimester surgical abortion
  • Most common cause of abortion-related mortally in 2nd trimester
  • Risk increases with increasing maternal age