A 57-year-old man is watching his son’s baseball game when he suddenly collapses. Witnesses did not appreciate a pulse, so they started CPR. Unfortunately, an AED was not available. EMS was called and when they arrived within minutes the patient was found to be in vfib arrest and was defibrillated. When the patient arrived to the hospital, he was in PEA arrest. Ultrasound of the patient’s heart showed some coordinated cardiac activity. ACLS doesn’t really tell us how to proceed with cardiac activity but not enough to generate a pulse on the monitor.
Background: In REBEL Cast Episode 73, Anand Swaminathan and I discussed two recent studies on the safety of peripheral vasopressors from two large trials . An email from good friend Rory Spiegel brought my attention to yet another trial on this topic . I think we can all agree that in patients with septic shock, or shock in general, the administration of vasopressor agents early, can help to stabilize patients and reverse end-organ hypoperfusion. Traditionally, this has been done through central venous catheters (CVCs) due to the hypothetical risk of extravasation injury to extremities. The flip side of this is, that central venous catheters are not without their own risks and time to place them can delay a therapy that may benefit patients....Read More
The perimortem cesarean section, or better named the resuscitative hysterotomy, is a procedure that is performed at or near death of a pregnant patient. Most experts agree that this procedure should be performed in a maternal arrest with a pregnancy ≥24 weeks of gestation. Although there is no real data regarding the optimal time to delivery post-arrest, survival drastically decreases when the time from maternal death to delivery reaches 5 minutes (ie. Therefore a 4 minute rule has become standard). In this talk from Rebellion in EM 2019, Dr. Jaime Hope, MD walks us through the steps of performing this stressful procedure....Read More
The use of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has been a hot topic on the cutting edge of trauma resuscitation for several years now. But who should be doing this procedure, on whom, and when? Tissue ischemia results from REBOA followed by reperfusion injury, organ dysfunction and potential cardiovascular collapse. Although appropriate patient selection is paramount, the system of care that surrounds this procedure is vital to minimizing delays to definitive hemorrhage control as well as the ischemic insult of aortic occlusion.
In 2018, the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACS COT) and the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) published a joint statement on the clinical use of REBOA2. This statement was met with much criticism from the emergency medicine/critical care world. Due to this, a revised statement has been published with different recommendations1. So, what does this statement say and how is it different from the 2018 statement?...Read More