March 4, 2019

Background: Over the past few years we have seen a surge in the use of oral Factor Xa inhibitors (apixaban, rivaroxaban etc) for anticoagulation.  The reason for this is the ease of use, standard dosing with no levels to check and no injections needed. Despite these advantages, the risk of bleeding remains a concern.  These agents unfortunately do not have any specific reversal agents.  In May of 2018, Andexanet alfa gained accelerated approval by the FDA for the reversal of these agents, but robust evidence in its support have been lacking.

November 29, 2018

Background: Pulmonary embolism is the leading cause of death in pregnancy and the puerperium – accounting for nearly 20% of maternal deaths in the United States – making rapid and accurate diagnosis critically important for emergency physicians, OB/GYNs, and all who take care of these women on a regular basis. Diagnosis is made more difficult by the frequency of concerning and suggestive signs and symptoms in this population, particularly dyspnea (a common symptom in pregnancy related to an increase in progesterone levels) and tachycardia (as resting heart rate is typically expected to increase by up to 25% in normal pregnancy). While the use of the D-dimer in conjunction with a low pre-test probability for pulmonary embolism is well-established for ruling out PE in the non-pregnant population, pregnant women were excluded from studies that derived and validated models assessing pretest clinical probability of PE, and no specific tool to assess pretest probability is available in this setting. This lack of a pretest probability assessment tool and the lack of prospective data confirming the safety of ruling out PE on the basis of a negative D-dimer result have limited the adoption of the D-dimer test in pregnant patients. Indeed, the American Thoracic Society guidelines [1] recommend specifically against the use of D-dimer to exclude PE in pregnancy. The DiPEP study, published in the British Journal of Haematology, attempted to add to this literature base [2], and was reviewed here on REBEL EM. The DiPEP authors’ conclusion, that D-dimer should not be recommended for use in the diagnostic work-up of PE in pregnancy, was echoed in our review, however this study was likely fundamentally flawed in that it did not risk stratify patients prior to application of D-dimer testing, a critical step in all validated applications. Recently, a group of French and Swiss authors published a prospective diagnostic management outcome study for diagnosis of PE in pregnant women that sought to better define the role of D-dimer when paired with pre-test risk stratification. [3]

September 20, 2018

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs frequently in patient with cancer. Treatment in this group entails a number of challenges including a higher rate of thrombosis recurrence and a higher risk of bleeding. Standard therapy in 2018 for both symptomatic and asymptomatic VTE is with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) based on this study. Prior to 2003, patients were treated with warfarin after bridging with either unfractionated or LMWH. This approach requires frequent monitoring due to unpredictable anticoagulation levels associated with drug interactions, malnutrition and vomiting. Due to these issues, treatment with LMWH alone may be both more efficacious as well as preferred by patients.

August 30, 2018

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs frequently in patient with cancer. Treatment in this group entails a number of challenges including a higher rate of thrombosis recurrence and a higher risk of bleeding. Standard therapy at this time for both symptomatic and asymptomatic VTE is with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) based on results from the CLOT trial (Lee 2003). In non-cancer patients, new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) like  rivaroxaban have been shown to be effective in treatment without increasing bleeding events. The NOACs also add ease of use for the patient. Though these agents are frequently used in the treatment of cancer-associated VTE, there is a dearth of evidence supporting this practice.

June 20, 2018

The 1stannual Rebellion in EM Clinical Conference took place in San Antonio, TX on May 11th– 13th, 2018.  If you missed out in 2018, the Rebellion is coming back June 28th – 30th, 2019.  Stay up to date as we plan the conference for this upcoming year at www.rebellioninem.com. The Missions of Rebellion in EM:
  1. Decrease Knowledge Translation: With 100s of journals and thousands of publications every year, it takes time for research to disseminate to clinical practice. Discussion of current literature and its application to practice is the key to facilitating safe best practices.
  2. Create a Community of Practice: It requires many to take care of the few Bvlgari Replica Watches. Patient care is a team sport that starts pre-hospital, continues through the ED, and finally into the hospital.
  3. Improve Patient Care: Decrease suffering and improve patient oriented outcomes
“Learning is always rebellion…every bit of new truth discovered is revolutionary to what was believed before.” -Margaret lee Runbeck-
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