Button Batteries: Small, disc shaped battery cells which are designed for use in small electronic devices. Common sources are kids toys, watches, calculators and hearing aids. Most batteries use lithium as a power source
Button Battery Ingestion Danger:
Background: Fever without source in infants less than three months old presents a difficult diagnostic dilemma for ED physicians. Over the past 25 years several algorithms have been developed to help guide clinicians, most notably the Rochester, Philadelphia and Boston Criteria, in determining which infants require admission vs. outpatient management. These studies were designed published between 1992 and 1994 prior to the wide spread use of HiB and pneumococcal vaccines in children, maternal GBS screening and the development of many new biomarkers.
The Step-by-Step approach to febrile infants was developed by a European group of pediatric emergency physicians with the objective of identifying low risk infants who could be safely managed as outpatients without lumbar puncture or empiric antibiotic treatment. The algorithm was designed using retrospective data and this study attempts to prospectively validate it....Read More
Pediatric Septic Hip Definition: Bacterial infection of the hip joint space and synovial fluid
BACKGROUND: Every year in the United States there are an estimated 178.8 million episodes of acute gastroenteritis resulting in 473,832 hospitalizations. Most of the evidence surrounding oral rehydration centers around Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) studies in low-income countries where children suffer from more extensive gastrointestinal losses. Theoretically, electrolyte maintenance solutions are recommended in order to prevent increasing diarrheal losses through the osmotic diuresis that can occur with glucose-rich drinks like juice. However, these electrolyte maintenance solutions can cost up to $10 for a 1-liter bottle and are unpalatable to some children. Refusal to drink often results in the need for IV hydration and can potentially result in disease progression and hospitalization. This study attempted to look at whether a dilute apple juice solution or preferred fluids was equal to, if not superior to oral hydration with an electrolyte maintenance solution....Read More