February 17, 2020

Background: In REBEL Cast Episode 73, Anand Swaminathan and I discussed two recent studies on the safety of peripheral vasopressors from two large trials [1][2]. An email from good friend Rory Spiegel brought my attention to yet another trial on this topic [3]. I think we can all agree that in patients with septic shock, or shock in general, the administration of vasopressor agents early, can help to stabilize patients and reverse end-organ hypoperfusion.  Traditionally, this has been done through central venous catheters (CVCs) due to the hypothetical risk of extravasation injury to extremities.  The flip side of this is, that central venous catheters are not without their own risks and time to place them can delay a therapy that may benefit patients.

February 13, 2020

Background: In critically ill patients needing IV access, ultrasound has helped improve gaining access to a set of peripheral veins, located deeper in the arm.  The time it takes to do this however is not insignificant but even more importantly is that once you achieve success, the line can fail due to a short catheter length. Central venous catheters, often seen as a solution to this latter issue, are not without their own risks and complications.  Therefore, a nice alternative option may be a midline catheter. These catheters are not meant for fast, large volume resuscitations because they also take time to place, but also have a longer catheter length which slows down infusion rates. Midline catheters are really about having safe access that is unlikely to be dislodged. This is a great option when you have medications you want to give but not have extravasation occur (i.e. vasopressors, hypertonic saline, calcium chloride, etc.).

January 9, 2020

Background: Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is the most widely utilized approach for patients requiring emergency tracheal intubation.  RSI typically requires the use of a induction agent followed by the use of a neuromuscular blocking agent (NMBA) to improve the overall intubation conditions and therefore improve first-attempt intubation success rate. Historically, succinylcholine has been the preferred NMBA, due to its fast onset (45 – 60 seconds) and fast offset (6 – 8 minutes of paralysis). Recent studies, however, show that rocuronium is an effective agent (similar timing of onset for ideal intubating conditions) as well.  When used at a dose of 1.2mg/kg, rocuronium has a similar onset time to succinylcholine of about 1 minute. Additionally, succinylcholine has several contraindications (see bottom of the post) while rocuronium has no contraindications (except for hypersensitivity) which has increased the debate about the paralytic agent of choice for RSI.

January 6, 2020

Background: Although the standard positioning for intubation is supine in the sniffing position, there has been recent literature in the past decade that elevating the head of the bed to 25 to 30 degrees may be a preferable setup for direct laryngoscopy due to improved laryngeal view and reduced airway complications. These studies have been conducted in multiple settings and patient populations including the prehospital setting, the emergency department, and the operating room (for elective cases). Additionally, video-assisted laryngoscopy has been a relatively recent innovation in airway management: the first video laryngoscope produced commercially became available in 2001. Similarly, this technology has been studied in multiple settings including in the emergency department and in the operating room. Both head-elevated direct laryngoscopy and video-assisted laryngoscopy have been studied with a variety of outcomes including first-pass success rate, time to intubation, and mortality rates. However, despite video-assisted laryngoscopy becoming increasingly ubiquitous, its limitations include a high cost and the possibility of components becoming damaged. Both of these innovations in intubation—video-assisted laryngoscopy and elevating the head of the bed—remain debated within the field of emergency medicine.

REBEL Review 91: Management of Vasopressor Extravasation

Created December 8, 2019 | Procedures and Skills | DOWNLOAD

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