What is it HLH?
Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare and often fatal syndrome of uncontrolled and ineffective inflammatory response to a certain trigger. It is characterized by excessive proliferation of lymphocytes and macrophages (histiocytes), hence the name “lymphohistiocytosis”. This results in the overproduction of cytokines, responsible for many of the clinical features present in this syndrome.
Familial, or genetic, HLH occurs as a result of a genetic mutation leading to impaired cytotoxic function. There have been several genetic mutations indicated in the development of HLH, including an association with congenital immunodeficiency syndromes, such as Chediak-Higashi, Griscelli and X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Syndromes. This form most often occurs within the first year of life (median age 8 months), with the majority of pediatric cases occurring <2 years of age, but can range from infancy to adulthood.
Acquired HLH occurs in the setting of an underlying condition, such as immunodeficiency, malignancy, or autoimmune disease. When HLH is secondary to a predisposing autoimmune disease, it is referred to as macrophage activating syndrome (MAS). Acquired HLH is the most common cause of this syndrome in adults, but this form can be seen in all ages. Overall, the syndrome is most often triggered by an infectious agent in an otherwise healthy person....Read More
Airway Pressure Release Ventilation (APRV) is a mode of ventilation that allows spontaneous breathing throughout the ventilation cycle. It is a time-cycled mode of ventilation between two levels of positive airway pressure with the main time on the high level and a shorter period of time during the expiratory release to facilitate ventilation. This may not be a mode of ventilation many ED physicians are comfortable and have experience with and in this podcast Frank Lodeserto, MD reviews how to setup, titrate, and wean patients on this mode of ventilation.
The protected code blue is designed to keep your staff safe when managing a patient with COVID-19 who has a sudden cardiac arrest. You will continue to do high quality CPR, defibrillation (if indicated), give code medications, and BVM with airway management, now with a drape. I’m going to outline a suggested plan for how to conduct a protected code blue at your hospital. You will need to modify it to fit your hospitals requirements....Read More
The REBELEM Team is proud to provide you with a Critical Care Education Curriculum that can be used for your residents, medical students, advanced providers as well as many other learners during their rotation. We realize now, more than ever, that providers are under high pressure to perform clinically in high stress environments like the Emergency Department and the Intensive Care Unit and provide high quality education at the same time. Our team would like to provide you with a quality resource to help you deliver a fun, dynamic, multimodal curriculum to your learners....Read More