August 5, 2019

Background: Epinephrine (adrenaline) remains a central part of management of OHCA in ACLS guidelines. Recent studies (i.e. PARAMEDIC-2) have raised concerns about the efficacy and possible deleterious effects of epinephrine on both overall survival and long-term neurological outcomes. Other observational trials have suggested that there may be a time dependent effect of epinephrine on survival, with earlier timing of epinephrine improving outcomes, and later timing of epinephrine causing deleterious effects[2]. This trial attempts to analyze the association between timing and dose of epinephrine given on survival and neurologic outcomes of patients with OHCA.

October 29, 2015

The newly published 2015 AHA guidelines recommend that: “In IHCA, the combination of Vasopressin, Epinephrine, and Methylprednisolone and post-arrest Hydrocortisone as described by Mentzelopoulos et al. maybe considered; however, further studies are needed before recommending the routine use of this strategy (Class IIb, LOE C-LD)” Mentzelopoulos et al. [2][3] have published two separate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies out of Greece examining the role of this Vasopressin, Steroid, and Epinephrine (VSE) cocktail. These studies looked at in-hospital cardiac arrest for patients and enrolled patients immediately with non-shockable rhythms or patients in refractory VFib/VTach. The first study included 100 patients from a single center, while the second study included 268 patients from multiple centers.

July 23, 2015

Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) provides a well structured framework for those who resuscitate infrequently. There is room to move beyond the algorithm to potentially provide better care for our patients for those who resuscitate frequently. I will describe some tweaks to the way CPR, defibrillation, and medications are delivered in the arrests I manage.

March 15, 2015

Recently, I wrote a post on the use of epinephrine in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and this triggered some interesting discussion on twitter. Are we at a point that we can just stop using epinephrine in OHCA?  Has anyone stopped actually using epinephrine in OHCA and if so, why or why not? The evidence seems to point to no "good" neurologic benefit over basic life support (BLS).  I would love to hear more peoples thoughts on this.

March 11, 2015

Epinephrine is widely used and recommended by Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS) in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), but its effectiveness in neurologic outcomes has never been truly established.  To verify effectiveness of epinephrine confounders, such as patients, CPR quality, CPR by bystanders, time from call to arrival at scene or hospital, and much much more, must be controlled for in a trial. This type of study is not easily performed due to ACLS being the current standard of care.
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