Background: Spontaneous, non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage, is one of the only stroke subtypes without a proven treatment. It is not as common as ischemic stroke, representing up to 20% of all strokes, but it accounts for almost half of all stroke deaths worldwide. Furthermore, about a quarter of intracerebral hemorrhage can be complicated by hematoma expansion which can occur up to 24 hours later and is itself associated with poor outcomes. There have been only small trials looking at the use of tranexamic acid in this group of patients, until now. The Tranexamic acid for hyperacute primary IntraCerebral Haemorrhage (TICH-2) trial looked to see if intravenous TXA reduces death and dependence when given within 8 hours of spontaneous ICH. Read more →
Procalcitonin: Useful Test or Useless Pest to Improve Antibiotic Stewardship with Acute Respiratory Infections in the ED?
Background: In patients with an acute respiratory illness (ARI), it is often difficult to determine whether a bacterial infection is the underlying etiology and whether antibiotics are warranted. Excess antibiotic use carries risk of bacterial resistance, medical costs, and adverse drug effects. However, underuse of antibiotics risks inadequate treatment and progression of disease. In the setting of a bacterial infection, cytokines stimulate procalcitonin production and release. The serum procalcitonin level increases with the progression of bacterial infection and decreases upon recovery. Procalcitonin production is actually blocked in the setting of viral infection, resulting in low serum levels. Numerous studies have investigated the use of procalcitonin for the determination of initiating antibiotics as well as for aiding in decisions to terminate their use.
This Evidence-Based Emergency Medicine (EBEM) article reviews the following systematic review:
Background: In the ED, POCUS has become one of the most important tools in discovering both the diagnosis and in the management of critically ill patients. cardiac arrest, is ultimately as sick as a person can get in the spectrum of critical illness. I mean how can someone be deader than dead, right? There has been a slew of literature evaluating the use of POCUS in cardiac arrest and many providers have started to incorporate its use into their practice. Newer literature, however indicates that the use of POCUS prolongs CPR pauses which ultimately impacts good neurological survival. POCUS protocols may help decrease cognitive load, but many are too cumbersome and complicated. Enter the Cardiac Arrest Sonographic Assessment (CASA) exam. Read more →
Background: In 2011, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) released a committee opinion warning against the use of nitrofurantoin (Macrobid) during the first trimester of pregnancy due to the perceived risk of an increased rate of congenital abnormalities with its use (Committee Opinion 2017). While the committee continued to recommend that nitrofurantoin be used as a first-line agent during the second and third trimesters, they stated that it should only be considered appropriate in the first trimester when no other suitable alternative antibiotics were available. While this recommendation seems to have been slow to permeate into the emergency medicine community, growing awareness has led to clinical trepidation in the provision of nitrofurantoin. Read more →
Background: Epinephrine(adrenaline) has been used in advanced life support in cardiac arrest since the early 1960s. Despite the routine recommendation for its use, evidence to support administration is less than ideal. Although it is clear from multiple observational studies that epinephrine improves return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and short-term survival, most evidence suggests an absence of improvements in survival with good neurologic outcomes. In cardiac arrest we want to take advantage of the alpha effects of epinephrine, including peripheral vasoconstriction, and therefore increasing aortic diastolic pressure, which in turn helps augment coronary and cerebral blood flow. On the other hand, we want to avoid the potentially detrimental beta effects including dysrhythmias, decreased microcirculation, and increased myocardial oxygen demand all of which increase the chances of recurrent cardiac arrest and decreased neurologic recovery. The only two interventions in cardiac arrest that have shown improve survival with good neurologic outcomes continue to be high-quality CPR and early defibrillation. The debate over the utility of epinephrine in OHCA has been ongoing for several years now and many providers have been awaiting the results of the PARAMEDIC-2 trial that was just published in the NEJM 2018. Read more →